PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN SMALL RUMINANTS
“Multi-product” farms: meat, milk, wood and leather.
Exploitation of natural resources and lands, non favourable for agriculture.
High adaptive ability to different climatic conditions.
Keep people in rural areas.
Land maintenance and reduction of erosion.
SHEEP WORLD RANKING : 1173 MILLIONS HEAD
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PRODUCTION SYSTEMS ACCORDING TO EXTENSIVE & INTENSIVE REQUIREMENTS :
1. EXTENSIVE PRODUCTION:
-Local breeds reared in fended areas.
-Low-medium reproductive efficiency
-Aims: low costs per animal and minimal cost per productive unit (carcass/kg)
2. INTENSIVE PRODUCTION:
-Farms with medium-high size.
-High reproductive efficiency.
Aims: High production, adequate costs, product quality improvement.
EXTENSIVE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS
Sheepherding in high fenced areas.
Few supplementary feeding.
Low reproductive intensification (1 parturition per year)
Bad sanitary conditions
Low profitability (depend on the manpower cost per animal and on the parturition season).
-Shepherd systems in which animals are housed during night and during the lactation and at the end of gestation.
-Grazing-based but supplementary feeding is provided during different phases.
-Reproduction is planed. Weaning and hormonal treatment during non-breeding season.
-Good facilities and correct health management
INTENSIVE PRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS
-Less frequent since it requires high costs. Mainly used for milking sheep.
-Use of breeds under high genetic selection for getting higher productions and/or high quality products.
-Optimization of feeding cost, manpower, facilities, etc.
-Animals are feeding on stable: not grazing.
-Health management is absolutely critical.
MAIN FACTORS INFLUENCING ON THE DIFFERENT PRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS
*Herd management and facilities
SELECTION OF THE BEST TYPE OF ANIMALS
Adaptation to the environment and conditions.
-Dual-purpose (meat + milk)
Strategies for maintaining the selected animal base: Replacement into the same herd/flock.
Genetic improvement: selection of biological and economical characters.
HERD REPRODUCTIVE MANAGEMENT
The planning of the reproductive system is mainly based on the selling time and the availability of space for
-Natural mating (Extensive)
-One lambing per year and rebreeding
-Three lambings in two years, i.e. parturitions and mounts each 8 months (Intensive, Semi-extensive)
-Star system, i.e. 5 lambings in 3 years per group, parturitions interval of 7 months (Intensive)
HERD REPRODUCTIVE MANAGEMENT
THREE LAMBINGS IN TWO YEARS
The herd is organized in two lots: the first lot is in the mating season and the second lot is in the last month of gestation.
Intensive and semi-extensive production systems.
It is needed to have a enough number of rams to mount the half of the herd (at least 1 for each 47 ewes) and enough space to house the half of the suckler ewes.
Medium manpower requirements.
STAR SYSTEM: FIVE LAMBING IN THREE YEARS
Aim: 5 lambings /3 years/ lot (PI 7 months).The philosophy is to mount just after an early weaning (less than 45 days).
–The herd is organized in three lots: the first lot is in the mating season, the second is lambing and the third lot is in the middle of the gestation.
-Used in intensive production systems.
-Lots in very different phases: different management for each lot.
–It is needed to have a enough number of rams to mount the third part of the herd and enough space to house the third part of the suckler ewes.
-High manpower requirements.
PRODUCTS OBTAINED FROM SHEEP
-Animal for replacement
OVINE MEAT PRODUCTION
Fed only with milk, 30 days-old, 10-12 kg live weigh (5-6 kg carcass weight)
Fed with grass, 24-26 kg live weight (12-13 kg carcass weight)
Fed with commercial feed, 24-26 kg live weight (12-13 kg carcass weight)
Adult: cull ewes
Lambs with longer fattenning phases
Carcass: 20 kg
SUCKLING LAMB PRODUCTION
Coming from milk aptitude animals.
Age until 30 days-old, 10-12 kg live weight (5-6 kg carcass weight).
Exclusive milk feeding.
Maternal milk or artificial milk replacer (artificial lactation).
FEED LAMB PRODUCTION
– Coming from in meat and dual-purpose (milk & meat) herds
– Reared in industrial feedlots.
-Feeding: Milk during the first 30-45 days
-Second week: initiation to milked-feed and free-access to good quality hay.
-Weaning at 10-15 kg
-Duration: 45 and 60 days.
-Management of homogeneous batches: previous classification based on breeds, weight, gender…
-Adaptation to feedlots (4-5 days): pelleted feeds and straw.
MAIN FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRODUCTIVITY IN THE FATTENING OF LAMBS
PRODUCTIVITY (number of lambs)
-Reproductive females (annual fertility and prolificacy)
-Farm management (mortality and culling rates)
PONDERAL PRODUCTIVITY (carcass weight)
-Technical-biological factors (genotype, growth rate, conversion indexes, commercial product, market preferences, carcass quality, etc.)
FACTORS AFFECTING THE MILK PRODUCTION IN EWES:
-Breed and genetic selection
-Animal weight and corporal reserves
-Parturition and number of lambs
-Feeding and nutrition
|Breed||Country||Milk (L/year)||Fat (%)||Protein (%)||Lactose (%)|
LACTATION CURVE IN EWES
1. Increasing phase: 20-30d
2. Intermediate phase: 50-70 d (meat), 100 d (mix), 180-200 d (milk).
3. Decreasing phase: 20-30 d
75-150 d meat aptitude
150-180 d mix aptitude
200-270 d milk aptitude
WOOL PRODUCTION (%)
Shearing 1 time/year: crude wool.
Nule or negative profitability.
According to each breeed: Fineness, length, colour and industrial behaviour of fibres.